Lebanese University, School of Public Health, LEBANON
Mohamad Zein has studied Physiotherapy at the Lebanese University in South Lebanon. He completed further training and specialization at Hospital Laperonie, Montpellier, France. His most recent studies include the completion of a DPT and Master courses in Sports Physiotherapy and Physical Activity at the University of Saint Joseph, Beirut, Lebanon. Mohamad also runs his own physiotherapy clinic, Mohamad Zein Clinic, in Tyre, South Lebanon and teaches several physiotherapy related subjects and the Lebanese German University, Tyre.
Golf is a renowned international sport for people of all ages which has many benefits both physical and mental. However, certain injury risks are also prevalent, particularly to the lower back.
Upon examining scientific literature we ascertained the risk factors associated with the development of LBP from playing golf and suggested methods to modify or limit these factors. Results of the literature indicate that the high frequency of LBP appears multi-factorial although the asymmetrical and forceful nature of the swing along with excessive play and practice, particularly amongst elite players, appear to be common factors. Other factors include swing flaws leading to excessive side-bend and over-rotation of the spine, abnormal muscle recruitment, poor trunk endurance, restricted lead hip internal rotation and the use of unnecessarily stressful club transportation methods. Methods to help control or eliminate excessive stress on the lower back would include reducing the amount spent playing or practicing, seeking professional assistance to assess and adjust swing mechanics, maintain the correct posture, improve trunk and hip flexibility, increase the strength and endurance of the trunk musculature, consider different footwear options and avoid carrying the golf bag. Adopting some or all of these recommendations should allow players to continue to enjoy the sport of golf well into their senior years.